An alternative to the ETS is the Permanent Forest Sink Initiative (PFSI). The PFSI promotes the establishment of permanent forests on previously unforested land. It offers landowners of permanent forests established after 1 January 1990 the opportunity to earn emission units (in the form of Assigned Amount Units or AAUs) for the carbon sequestered by their forests since 1 January 2008. To be eligible, the forest must be “direct human induced …. through planting, seeding and/or the human-induced promotion of natural seed sources”. PFSI participants enter a covenant with the Crown which is registered against their land title. The covenant is in perpetuity, with the right to terminate after a minimum term of 50 years. Landowners are responsible for establishing and maintaining the forest. Limited harvesting is allowed. The PFSI is complementary to the forestry in the ETS and landowners should also consider their options under the ETS.